Bangladesh

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Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %) – 1.2 (2010-2015)
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) – 3.6 (2010-2015)
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) – 0.1( 2010-2015)
Urban population (%) 33.5 (2014)
Population aged 0-14 years (%) – 29.5 (2014)
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 6.8/7.2 (2014)
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) – 2.2  (2007-2013)
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) – 102.3 (2014)
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) – 71.3/69.8 (2010- 2015)
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) – 32.4 (2010- 2015)
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) – 2.2 (2010- 2015)

Economic Indicators

GDP per capita – 980.3 USD ‎(2013)
GDP growth rate – 6.0% annual change ‎(2013)
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) – 153505 (2013)   
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) – 136 (2013)
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 136 (2013)
Exports (million US$) 24313.7 (2013)
Imports (million US$)  41221.7 (2013)

Country’s Environmental Profile

Bangladesh is surrounded by India in the West, North and Northeast and by Myanmar on the Southeast with the Bay of Bengal in the South providing a gateway to the oceans of the world. It enjoys the sub-tropical monsoon climate regime characterized by high temperatures, heavy rainfall and excessive humidity with marked seasonal variations.

The Country is endowed with a unique natural resource base. About 80% of the country consists of floodplains and wetlands with over 300 rivers in the riverine network that sustains rare wildlife, flora and fauna. There are diverse ecological systems in the country ranging from the unique mangrove forests of the SundarbansSundarbans www.sunderbans-national-park.com/ in the Southwest to coastal and marine ecosystems in the deep South; deep natural water basins called “haors’ and “baors” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haor in the Northeast which remain inundated for half of the year and has a unique but changing ecology; arid area in the upper mid-section to hill tracts in the Southeast and flat sandy or marshy riverine deltas in the middle down to South.

The country has more than 700 kms of coastline in the South along the bay of Bengal with a population of over 35 million who are most vulnerable to cyclones, tidal surges and salinity ingress. Coastal Estuaries and wetlands are rich in fisheries and other biodiversity resources.

Bangladesh has limited natural forest cover, at about 10 percent of land area, down from 20 percent in the 1960s, and almost all of that area is now seriously degraded, as a result of extreme population pressure for fuel wood and other forest products. Major Forest types found in the country are Tropical Green forests, Semi evergreen forest, Deciduous Forests, Mangroves forests and homestead forests.

The country supports good floral and faunal biodiversity which includes 4,061 species of vascular plants, 653 species of fishes, 34 species of amphibians, 154 species of reptiles,650 species of birds,121 species of mammals. Among them are some of the internationally significance species such as Asian Elephant, Royal Bengal Tiger, Gharial (Crocodile), Gigantic Dolphin, Black Bengal Goat and different species of sea turtles.

Principal Environmental Laws

  • The Environment Policy and Action Plan (1992)
  • The Bangladesh Environmental Conservation Act (1995)
  • Environmental Protection Regulations (1998)
  • Bangladesh Environment protection law
  • The Forest Act of 1927
  • National Conservation Strategy and National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP)
  • The National Fisheries Strategy and Inland Capture Fisheries Strategy (2006)
  • The Jalmohal Management Policy (2009)
  • The Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) Order of 1973
  • The Protection and Conservation of Fish Act, 1950,
  • Conservation, Restoration and Filling Control Act of 2003
  • Bangladesh Biodiversity Act, 2012
  • Climate Change Trust Act, 2010

 

Environmental Related Reports

Major Environmental Issues:

  • Air pollution,
  • Water pollution,
  • Land Degradation,
  • Floods, cyclones, tidal surges and salinity ingress,,
  • Deterioration of the quantity and quality of its natural resources: soil, forests and fisheries,

 

Important Web sites

  1. Bangladesh Government website
  2. Department of Environment
  3. Forest Department
  4. Ministry of Agriculture
  5. Department of Agricultural Extension
  6. Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief
  7. Department Of Disaster Management
  8. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

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