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Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %) – 1.6 (2010-2015)
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) – 3.7(2010-2015)
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) – 0.4 ( 2010-2015)
Urban population (%) 37.9 (2014)
Population aged 0-14 years (%) – 27.6 (2014)
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 6.7/7.4  (2014)
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) – 5.5  (2007-2013)
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) – 116.1 (2014)
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) – 68.4/67.7 (2010- 2015)
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) – 30.7 (2010- 2015)             
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) – 2.3(2010- 2015)

Economic Indicators

GDP per capita – 2362.6 USD ‎(2013)
GDP growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) – 2.1  ‎(2013)
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) – 1781 (2013)
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) – 97 (2013)
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 97 (2013)
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 72 (2013)

Country’s Environmental Profile

The Kingdom of Bhutan is a small, land-locked mountainous nation in South Asia, located in the eastern Himalaya Mountains north of India and south of China with more than half the urban population concentrated in just two towns – Thimphu and Phuentsholing. Thimphu alone has more than 40% of the total urban population while Phuentsholing has more than 10%.

Bhutan is a predominantly agrarian society with 69% of the population living in rural areas and subsisting on an integrated livelihood system of crop agriculture, livestock rearing and use of a wide range of forest products. High precipitation, extensive forest cover and well-preserved watersheds have endowed the country with abundant hydropower resources. The country’s economy is basically driven by renewable natural resources sector, hydropower production, tourism, and industrial development

Forest is by far the most dominant land cover, with 72.5% of the country under forest cover – one of the highest in the world. The country’s terrain is mostly mountainous with extreme variation in elevation (97 m to 7,553 m) with few fertile valleys and savannah. The fauna of Bhutan is also very diverse with more than 160 mammal species reported. Grey langurs, macaques, tigers, leopards, goral, serow, black bear, fox, deer, and many other species live in the temperate zone. The high altitude fauna is mostly paleoarctic in origin and includes takin, blue sheep, red panda, snow leopard, brown bear, wolf, steppe cat, and Tibetan antelope

Storms and frequent landslides during the rainy season are the two main natural hazards faced by Bhutan, hence the name meaning “the Land of the Thunder Dragon”.

Principal Environmental Laws


Environmental Related Reports

Major Environmental Issues:

  • soil erosion,
  • limited access to potable water,
  • Land Degradation ,
  • Wildlife poaching,
  • Forest fire,
  • Urban rural migration,


Important Web sites

  1. Bhutan  Government website
  2. Ministry of Agriculture
  3. Ministry of Health
  4. Clearing House Mechanism Portal for Bhutan
  5. National Biosafety Clearing House Portal
  6. Bhutan Water Security Information Management System.